Keyboard-IPA for entry of transcriptionsmore GTRP: home | CD-ROM
*) K-IPA-transcriptions have been simplified on the basis of some of the Dutch spelling conventions for purposes of readability for lay users and for convenience at searches.
Included on the CD-ROM are all data in HTML-unicode (MacOS & pc) and in SIL-Manuscript-IPA-regular font (mac & pc).
In the use in any form towards others of the KIPA-encoding or of the simplified pronunciation spelling, always mention: "Goeman, Van Reenen, Van den Berg (Meertens Instituut-KNAW)".
Keyboard-IPA turned out to be very practical. Eg. in contrast to (X)SAMPA) it uses only vowels for the encoding of vowels and only consonants for consonants; thus enhancing greatly its readability.
At the same time (in contrast to SAMPA) are accents and special characters only used for diacritics and not for sounds.
(Notice however that Groningen RND-SAMPA may considerably vary from the 'official' SAMPA.)
The first goal during development, viz. "independence of software and fonts", meant using only the lower ascii-values.
The second point of attention, "quick data entry", meant as few keyboard strokes as possible - plus designing somewhat 'iconic' in order not to have too great a difference between original and code, for ease of 'translating' and diminishing chances of typos.
Thus, for example, during entry the g was used for the voiced fricative (instead of the internationally association with a stop) because of its interpretation within the Dutch context and needing just one stroke (considering the frequency in Dutch).
A 'counter force' in desiging was the demand for readability.
Notice that in the mean time, data entry being finished, some of the encodings have been reworked towards international demands of readability: the afore mentioned g now indeed indicates again the voiced stop. Computer use demanded changing capital characters into low key characters (using additional numbering) and adapting some combinations like ae (near-open front unrounded vowel) (after checking for real a-e combinations).
Finally, at the outset of the project a choice was made not to indicate the transcriber's sense of syllable boundaries. Only at clear pauses a white space was used. Keep this in mind when formulating your queries.
We should like to call for further usage of KIPA in other projects. Don't hesitate to contact us. &rarr contact
(For the benefit of (mainly Dutch) users of the original encodings now follows a list of changes dated december 2002:
Simplification'Long' vowels are doubly spelled: aa oo oe ii (not ie) uu eu
'ei' comes in several variations, eg. E(ii)
'Short' vowels are spelled with a single character: a ('pad') i ('pit') u ('put') E ('pet'; mind the capital)
Lengthened vowels get h: ah, oh, Eh, aah, euh
Schwa is always spelled e (without any accent) (uue = uu plus schwa)
Sometimes vowels are separated by - (hyphen) to disambiguate: a-e (in case it is not ae)
Tongue tipped trilled r is doubly spelled: rr, 'single trill'-r is just spelled once: r
A 'thick' l is spelled doubly: ll
Lightly spoken sounds come between brackets: (l) (r)
A glottal stop (air flow stop already inside the throat) is indicated with ' (apostrophe)
A sound which is completely nasalized: (n)
A syllabified consonant receives a hyphen: n- -m
Of Limburgian tones only the relevant S and V are included in the simplification.
Diacritics have been left out except for nasality: (n) and palatalization: (j).
All variants coming after * as well as all remarks on the same line have been left out. Just * has remained.
g has voice, ch is voiceless, gg is the 'g' of (english) 'goal'
Stick to these 'rules' in all circumstances. Singly spelled means always 'short', even in open syllables (contrary to normal spelling). Keep in mind though the diphtongues oe [u] and eu [KIPA: o/].